- ACL Tear: An ACL injury is a tear or sprain of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) — one of the major ligaments in your knee. ACL injuries most commonly occur during sports that involve sudden stops or changes in direction, jumping and landing — such as soccer, basketball, football and downhill skiing.
- Signs and symptoms of an ACL injury usually include:
- A loud “pop” or a “popping” sensation in the knee
- Severe pain and inability to continue activity
- Rapid swelling
- Loss of range of motion
- A feeling of instability or “giving way” with weight bearing
- LCL Tear: The lateral collateral ligament, or LCL, is one of the four major knee ligaments. The LCL connects the end of the thigh bone (the femur) to the top of the smaller shin bone (fibula), on the outside of the knee. The LCL helps to prevent excessive side-to-side movement of the knee joint. When the LCL is torn, the knee joint may bend too far inwards when stressed.
People who injure their knee ligaments may develop sensations of instability of the knee joint. Instability is the symptom of the knee wanting to buckle, or give-out.
- PCL Tear: The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is a ligament within the knee. Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect bones.
The PCL — similar to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) — connects the thigh bone (femur) to your shin bone (tibia). Although it is larger and stronger than the ACL, the PCL can be torn.
- Swelling (mild to severe)
- Knee pain
- Wobbly sensation in the knee
- Trouble walking or bearing weight on the knee
- Meniscus Tear:A tear of a meniscus is a rupturing of one or more of the fibrocartilage strips in the knee called menisci. The “torn cartilage” in the knee, refers to an injury to a meniscus at the top of one of the tibiae.
The common signs and symptoms of a torn meniscus are knee pain, particularly along the joint line, and swelling. These are worse when the knee bears more weight (for example, when running). Another typical complaint is joint locking, when the affected person is unable to straighten the leg fully. This can be accompanied by a clicking feeling. Sometimes, a meniscal tear also causes a sensation that the knee gives way.
A person with a torn meniscus can sometimes remember a specific activity during which the injury was sustained. A tear of the meniscus commonly follows a trauma which involves rotation of the knee while it was slightly bent.
- MCL Tear: The MCL (medial collateral ligament) is a band of tissue that runs along the inner edge of your knee. It helps to connect your shin and thigh bones to keep your knee stable and working properly when you move. When your outer knee is hit very hard, the MCL, which runs along your inner knee, can stretch out far enough to strain or tear. People who play football, hockey, and other sports where players impact other athletes with great force may injure their MCL this way.
- Patella Tendon Tear:Patellar tendon rupture is a tear of the tendon that connects the knee cap (patella) to the tibia. Often there is sudden onset of pain and walking is difficult. In a complete rupture the ability to extend that knee is decreased. A pop may be felt when it occurs.
- The patient is unable to continue activity
- The patient can’t resume weight-bearing or does so only with assistance
- An indentation at the bottom of your kneecap where the tendon tore.
- A proximally displaced patella, because it’s no longer anchored to your shinbone
- Incomplete extensor function
- Walking will be difficult, due to the knee buckling or giving way
- Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition of the joints. OA can affect any joint, but it occurs most often in knees, hips, lower back and neck, small joints of the fingers and the bases of the thumb and big toe.
Knee osteoarthritis is the occurrence of
osteoarthritis(OA) in the knee joint. “Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease
- Stiffness, particularly in the morning
- Sensitivity when kneeling or bending
- Decrease in the abilities of daily functioning
- More commonly diagnosed
- Loss of mobility in the affected joint
- Decrease in muscle power
- Instability of the joint
- This type of OA can be caused by obesity, trauma, inflammatory or genetically