Misalignment of spine: Involving the muscles, joints and discs of your neck, back and pelvis, From the uneven stress on the spinal disc from the misalignment the disc goes through five stages: wedge, bulge, protrude, herniated and rupture. Also involved are your shoulders, hips and knees.
Nerve compression: Nerve compression syndrome or compression neuropathy, is a medical condition caused by direct pressure on a nerve. It is known colloquially as a trapped nerve, though this may also refer to nerve root compression (by a herniated disc, for example). Its symptoms include pain, tingling, numbness and muscle weakness. A nerve entrapment is caused when a peripheral nerve losses mobility, flexibility, or becomes compressed by surrounding tissues. A nerve entrapment can cause neuropathic / neurogenic pain that can be either acute or chronic in nature.
Degenerative Disc Disease: Degenerative disc disease is a process where the intervertebral discs lose height and hydration. When this occurs, the discs are unable to fulfill their primary functions of cushioning and providing mobility between the vertebrae. Although the exact cause of the disease is unknown, it is thought to be associated with the aging process during which the intervertebral discs dehydrate, lose elasticity, and collapse. Degenerative disc disease may develop at any level of the spine, but is most common in the cervical and lower lumbar regions.
Lumbar & Cervical Disc Bulge: Lumbar DDD is a condition that maybe a cause of lower back pain, which results from the co-existence of two different time scales, the slow dynamics of disc degeneration and the fast dynamics of pain recurrence.
Sciatica: Sciatica is the result of a neurological problem in the back or an entrapped nerve in the pelvis or buttock. There are a set of neurological symptoms such as:
Pain (intense pain in the buttock)
Radiating pain down the pain
Hot and cold or tingling or burning sensations in the legs
Paresthesias or dysesthesias and oedema in the lower extremity that can be caused by the irritation of the sciatic nerves (the lumbar nerve L4 and L5 and the sacral nerves S1,S2 and S3).
Cervical Radiculopathy: “Cervical radiculopathy is a disease process marked by nerve compression from herniated disk material or arthritic bone spurs. This impingement typically produces neck and radiating arm pain or numbness, sensory deficits, or motor dysfunction in the neck and upper extremities.”
Cervical radiculopathy occurs with pathologies that causes symptoms on the nerve roots. Those can be compression, irritation, traction, and a lesion on the nerve root caused by either a herniated disc, foraminal narrowing or degenerative spondylitic change (Osteoarthritic changed or degeneration) leading to stenosis of the intervertebral foramen
Spinal Stenosis: Spinal stenosis is a condition in which the spinal canal narrows and the nerve roots and spinal cord become compressed. Because not all patients with spinal narrowing develop symptoms, the term “spinal stenosis” actually refers to the symptoms of pain and not to the narrowing itself.
Facet Joint Syndrome: Facet syndrome is an articular disorder related to the lumbar facet joints and their innervations, and produces both local and radiating pain. The ‘facet syndrome’ characterized by back and/or leg pain, as a result from mechanical irritation of a lower lumbar zygapophysial joints. This is more than 20 years ago, but the facet joint has been increasingly recognized as an important cause of low back pain.