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Fractures

fracture

  • A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress. The fracture of a solid usually occurs due to the development of certain displacement discontinuity surfaces within the solid.
  • If a displacement develops perpendicular to the surface of displacement.
  • it is called a normal tensile crack or simply a crack; if a displacement develops tangentially to the surface of displacement, it is called a shear crack, slip band, or dislocation.Fracture strength or breaking strength is the stress when a specimen fails or fractures.
  • The word fracture is often applied to bones of living creatures (that is, a bone fracture), or to crystals or crystalline materials, such as gemstones or metal. Sometimes, in crystalline materials, individual crystals fracture without the body actually separating into two or more pieces.
  • Depending on the substance which is fractured, a fracture reduces strength(most substances) or inhibits transmission of light (optical crystals).A detailed understanding of how fracture occurs in materials may be assisted by the study of fracture mechanics.

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